The southern part of Carniola is occupied by the following divisions of the northern ramifications of the Karst Mountains: the Birnbaumer Wald with the highest peak, the Nanos (4275 ft.), and the Krainer Schneeberg (5890 ft.); the Hornwald with the highest peak, the Hornbiichl (3608 ft.), and the Uskokengebirge (3 8 74 ft.).
With timber, as is indicated by the frequent use of the termina- Saxe-Weimar tion wald affixed to the names Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
In the Thiiringer Wald are certain strata, presumably Cambrian since the uppermost beds contain the Euloma-Niobe fauna.
It attains in the Weinsberger Wald, of which the highest point is the Peilstein, an altitude of 3478 ft., and descends towards the valley of the Danube through the Gfoehler Wald (2368 ft.) and the Manhartsberg (1758 ft.).
The Rotlagergebirge, Eggegebirge and Teutoburger Wald form with some intermediate ranges the watershed between the basin of the Weser and those of the Rhine and Ems. In the N.E.
Parallel to the Carpathians are the Marsgebirge (1915 ft.) and its continuation, the Steinitzer Wald (1450 ft.).
Attila and his Huns were among the temporary occupants of the place (5th century), and in the following century it came into the possession of the Avars, after which its name disappears from history until towards the close of the 8th century, when Charlemagne expelled the Avars and made the district between the Enns and the Wiener Wald the boundary of his empire.