He commanded a division in the Vicksburg campaign and in the fighting about Chattanooga, and was one of Sherman's corps commanders in the final campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas.
P. Blair and a force from the Army of the Tennessee; when Vicksburg surrendered a larger force was at once sent against him, whereupon he retired.
During the rest of this Vicksburg campaign there was much friction between McClernand and his colleagues; he undoubtedly intrigued for the removal of Grant; it was Grant's opinion that at Champion's Hill (May 16) he was dilatory; and because a congratulatory order to his corps was published in the press (contrary to an order of the department and another of Grant) he was relieved of his command on the, 8th of June, and was replaced by General E.
A few months later the great reverse of Chickamauga created an alarm in the North commensurate with the elation that had been felt at the double victory of Vicksburg and Gettysburg, and Grant was at once ordered to Chattanooga, to decide the fate of the Army of the Cumberland in a second battle.
Many weeks passed without any success to the Union arms. Vicksburg and its long line of fortifications stood on high bluffs, all else was swampy lowland and intricate waterways.
Butler occupied that city The navigation of the river being secured by this success and by later operations in the north ending in July 1863 with the capture of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the state was wholly at the mercy of the Union armies.
Grant, as he pushed Pemberton before him to Granada, lengthened day by day his line of communication, and when Van Dorn, ever enterprising, raided the great Federal depot of Holly Springs the game was up. Grant retired hastily, for starvation was imminent, and Pemberton, thus freed, turned upon Sherman, and inflicted a severe defeat on that general at Chickasaw Bayou near Vicksburg (December 29).
After the fall of Vicksburg Johnston concentrated his forces at Jackson, which had been evacuated by the Federal troops, and prepared to make a stand behind the intrenchments.
The first railway in Mississippi was completed from Vicksburg to Clinton in 1840, but the state had suffered severely from the panic of 1837, and in.1850 it had only 75 m.
The Vicksburg formation lies next in order south-west, in a narrow strip of fairly regular width which alone of the Tertiary formations runs as far west as the Mississippi River; it is probably nowhere more than 110 ft.