Their organs of locomotion are the ribs, the number of which is very great, nearly corresponding to that of the vertebrae of the trunk.
Dentaries; some of the vertebrae in the lower region of the neck have strongly developed hypapophyses (not provided with a cap of enamel, as has often been asserted), which are directed forwards and pierce the oesophagus.
One of the distinctive features of this family is the presence of small naked callosities on the buttocks; another being a difference in the number of vertebrae and ribs as compared with those of the Simiidae.
The transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae are long, flattened, and project horizontally outwards or slightly forward from the arch.
In tracing the osteological characters of apes and man through this series, the general system of the skeletons, and the close correspondence in number and arrangement of vertebrae and ribs, as well as in the teeth, go far towards justifying the opinion of hereditary connexion.
The lowest coccygeal vertebrae of man remain as a rudimentary tail.
The vertebrae are stereospondylous, the centrum or body and the arch being com pletely fused into one mass, leaving not even a neuro-central suture.
It was observed that ten of the caudal vertebrae of the latter skeleton bore tooth marks and grooves corresponding exactly with the sharp pointed teeth in the jaw of the carnivorous dinosaur.
The vertebrae of the neck unite by nearly flat surfaces, the humerus has lost the foramen, or perforation, at the lower end, and the third trochanter to the femur may also be wanting.
Pp. 403-408), to which were assigned as other characters vertebrae of a saddle-shape and not biconcave, a keelless sternum, and wings consisting only of the humerus.