The same authorities recommend a powder, composed of larvicide (an aniline substance), chrysanthemum flowers, and valerian root, to be burnt in bedrooms. Anointing the skin with strong-smelling substances is of little use in the open air, but more effective in the house; turpentine appears to be the best.
That Valerian had a part in constructing these remarkable works does not rest upon any historical basis; we may, however, believe that the Sassanian Ardashir, or his son Shapur I, finding that the river, having its bed in friable soil, was daily getting lower and finally threatened to leave the town and the Mian-do-ab district dry by not filling the Darian canal, engaged Roman workmen.
After the death of Decius Valerian retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who sent him to fetch troops to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus, governor of Moesia and Pannonia.
Two other members of this distinguished family of the Valerian gens may be mentioned: Marcus Valerius Messalla, father of the preceding, consul in 53 B.C. He was twice accused of illegal practices in connexion with the elections; on the first occasion he was acquitted, in spite of his obvious guilt, through the eloquence of his uncle Quintus Hortensius; on the second he was condemned.
The best known of these are cloves, pimento (allspice), myrtle, eucalyptus, caraway, fennel, dill, coriander, rosemary, lavender, peppermint, spearmint, nutmeg, cinnamon, sandal-wood, turpentine, juniper berries, valerian and sumbul.
A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).
Bernhardt, Geschichte Roms von Valerian bis zu Diocletians Tod (1867); A.
Their opportunity came with the disaster which befell the Roman army under Valerian (q.v.) at Edessa, a disaster, says ' The full text, both Greek and Palmyrene, with an English translation, is given in NSI, pp. 313-340.
See Trebellius Pollio, Life of Valerian (frags.); Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 32; Eutropius ix.
In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the senate.