It may be obtained from urine by evaporating to dryness on the water bath, taking up the residue in absolute alcohol and evaporating the alcoholic solution to dryness again.
Cushny has shown experimentally that slowing of the blood-flow through renal tissue causes less sodium chloride to appear in the urine while the excretion of urea and sulphates remains unaffected; apparently the chloride, being more permeable, is reabsorbed and so only appears to be excreted in less quantity.
The d modification is of the commonest occurrence, the other forms being only known as synthetic products; for this reason it is usually termed glucose, simply; alternative names are dextrose, grape sugar and diabetic sugar, in allusion to its right-handed optical rotation, its occurrence in large quantity in grapes, and in the urine of diabetic patients respectively.
The treatment is far from satisfactory, and consists in keeping up the strength and diluting the poison in the blood and in the urine by the administration of bland fluids, such as soda-water, milk and plain water, in quantities as large as possible.
In large doses, on the other hand, the renal vessels also are constricted and the amount of urine falls.
CARBOLIC ACID or Phenol (hydroxy-benzene), C 6 H 5 OH, an acid found in the urine of the herbivorae, and in small quantity in castoreum (F.
During excretion they irritate the kidneys and the sweat-glands, and thereby increase the excretion of urine and of sweat.
The symptoms of nerve-poisoning are due to the carbolic acid (or its salts) which circulate in the blood after all the sulphates in the blood have been used up in the formation of sulpho-carbolates (hence, during administration of carbolic acid, the urine should frequently be tested for the presence of free sulphates; as long as these occur in the urine, they are present in the blood and there is no danger).
Reinsch on distilling catechin (the juice of Mimosa catechu); occurs free in kino and in beechwood tar; its sulphonic acid is present in the urine of the horse and man.
These symptoms with more or less gastro-intestinal irritation and decrease in the quantity of urine passed indicate digitalis poisoning.