But in a second and more important campaign, in which the militia of the other Guelf towns of Tuscany took part, the Florentines were signally defeated at Montaperti on the 4th of September 1260.
Prince Matthias of Tuscany employed Courtois on some striking works in his villa, Lappeggio, representing with much historical accuracy the prince's military exploits.
The industry centres chiefly in Piedmont (province of Novara), Venetia (province of Vicenza), Tuscany (Florence), Lombardy (Brescia), Campania (Caserta), Genoa, Umbria, the Marches and Rome.
On the history of Florence and of Tuscany he wrote Tavole cronologiclze e sincrone della storia fiorentina (1841; Supplement, 1875); Geschichte Toscanas seit dem Ende des florentinischen Freistaats (Gotha, 1876-77); and Lorenzo de' Medici (Leipzig, 1874, and again 1883).
The number of scholars in the elementary schools for1901-1902was 59.09 per loon (Calabria 42.27, Tuscany 67 09, Piedmont 118.00); the teachers are 1.34 per woo, a total of 1084 of both sexes (among whom only one priest) (Calabria 1.18, Tuscany I 29, Piedmont 2.
His baptismal name was Frederick, and he was a younger brother of Godfrey, duke of Upper Lorraine, marquis of Tuscany (by his marriage with Beatrice, widow of Boniface, marquis of Tuscany).
Austria also concluded offensive and defensive alliancqs with Sardinia Tuscany and Naples; and Metternichs ambition was to make Austrian predominance over Italy still more absolute, by placing an Austrian archduke on the Sardinian throne.
Each region produces a special type, Venetia turning out imitations of 16th- and I 7th-century styles, Tuscany the 15th-century or cinquecento style, and the Neapolitan provinces the Pompeian style.
Florence is the capital of a province of the same name, and the central government is represented by a prefect (prefetto), while local government is carried on by a mayor (sindaco) Under the Carolingian emperors Tuscany was a March or margraviate, and the marquises became so powerful as to be even a danger to the Empire.
Criminal statistics, though slowly diminishing, are still high - murders, which are the most frequent crimes, having been 27 per 100,000 inhabitants in1897-1898and 25'23 per 100,000 in 1903, as against 2.57 in Lombardy, 2.00 in the district of Venetia, 4.50 in Tuscany and 5.24 in Piedmont.