They begin on the Danube near Pressburg, surround Hungary and Transylvania in a large semicircle, the concavity of which is towards the south-west, and end on the Danube near Orsova.
In1824-1828he was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Brown University, acting as president in 1826-1827; in1828-1831was president of Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky; and in1831-1837was president of the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, where he organized the Alabama Female Athenaeum.
After recovering Transylvania he was sent to drive the Austrian general Puchner out of the Banat of Temesvar.
The famous cinnabar and mercury mines of Idria in Carniola are in Triassic beds; and the gold and silver of northern Hungary and of Transylvania are associated with the Tertiary volcanic rocks.
Subsequently he assisted Stephen Bocskay to mount the throne of Transylvania (1605), and remained his chief counsellor.
John Sigismund was recognized as independent prince of Transylvania and of sixteen adjacent Hungarian counties, Queen Isabella to act as regent during his minority.
This was followed, on the 26th of January 1699, by the peace of Karlowitz, by which Slavonia, Transylvania and all Hungary, except the banat of Temesvar, were ceded to the Austrian crown.
The exploitation of this great source of wealth is still hindered by want of proper means of communication, but in many parts of Transylvania it is now carried on successfully.
The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau.
Neither side had been careful to observe the terms of the treaty of 1547; the Turkish pashas in Hungary had raided Ferdinand's dominions, while Ferdinand had been negotiating with Frater GeOrgy (see Martinuzzi) with a view to freeing Transylvania from the Ottoman suzerainty.