More generally, philosophic rationalism is opposed to empirical theories of knowledge, inasmuch as it regards all true knowledge as deriving deductively from fundamental elementary concepts.
In the herbals and older treatises on materia medica and therapeutics no explanation is usually offered of the action of medicines, and in such works as that of Cullen (1789) only a few of the more obvious actions are occasionally explained according to the current theories of physiology and pathology.
His general theory of knowledge deriving from Kant and Reid, and including among other things a contaminatio of their theories of perception, 3 in no way sustains or mitigates his narrow view of logic. He makes no effective use of his general formula that to think is to condition.
Watson, Hedonistic Theories from Aristippus to Spencer (1895); L.
The theories of colour have also been investigated by Hantzsch, who first considered the nitro-phenols.
The work on acute and chronic diseases is also full of practical knowledge, but penetrated with the theories of the methodists.
Although the theories of Meyer and Hewitt do not explain (in their present form) the behaviour of anthranilic acid, yet Hewitt has shown that his theory goes far to explain the fluorescence of substances in which a double symmetrical tautomerism is possible.
With which he formulated his position were the im mediate occasion of the contemporaneous crystallization of Realism in the theories of Anselm and William of Champeaux.
Now, though a pure specialist may be an abstraction of the mind, the tendency of specialists in any department naturally is to lose sight of the whole in attention to the particular categories or modes of nature's working which happen to be exemplified, and fruitfully applied, in their own sphere of investigation; and in proportion as this is the case it becomes necessary for their theories to be co-ordinated with the results of other inquirers, and set, as it were, in the light of the whole.
This the present writer is inclined to doubt, considering that he has received examples of the normal Amblystoma tigrinum from various parts of Mexico, and that Alfred Duges has described an Amblystoma from mountains near Mexico City; at the same time he feels very suspicious of the various statements to that effect which have appeared in so many works, and rather disposed to make light of the ingenious theories launched by biological speculators who have never set foot in Mexico, especially Weismann's picture of the dismal condition of the salt-incrusted surroundings which were supposed to have hemmed in the axolotl - the brackish Lago de Texcoco, the largest of the lakes near Mexico, being evidently in the philosopher's mind.