Elliptically polarized light is investigated by the reduction of the pencil to a state of plane polarization, and a determination of the resulting plane of polarization.
This is valid so long as the pencil is in air; but if, on the other hand, the pencil passes from air through a plane surface into an optically denser medium, e.g.
It is seen (ignoring exceptional cases) that the pencil does not meet the refracting or reflecting surface at right angles; therefore it is astigmatic (Gr.
If now the nti c denote a given pencil of lines, an invariant is the criterion of the pencil possessing some particular property which is independent alike of the axes and of the multiples, and a covariant expresses that the pencil of lines which it denotes is a fixed pencil whatever be the axes or the multiples.
It doesn't matter that the person selling pencils doesn't know how the pencil is made; he only needs to know how to sell them.
The motion communicated to rollers by the pencil serves to cut resistance in or out of the two line circuits which are connected to the rollers, and thus two independent variable line currents are obtained.
His attention returning to the lap desk, he picked up the pencil as if ready to write something - and then put it down.
The parallel grooves correspond to lines and when we have pressed the paper into them by means of the blunt end of the pencil it is very easy to keep the words even.
Also the diameter of the pencil or parallel rays emerging from the eye-lens to the diameter of the object-lens inversely as, the magnifying power of the telescope.
While the limiting of the pencil is almost always effected by the objective, the limiting of the field of view is effected by the eyepiece, and indeed it is carried out by a real diaphragm DD arranged in the plane of the real image O'O 1 (fig.