The retorts are charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort fires.
The low temperature of the winter allows (indirectly) an accumulation of the essential nitrogenous mineral salts, but as the minimal temperature is passed (in Feb.
Local winds form an important feature in nearly all the coast climates of the Mediterranean, especially in winter, where they are primarily caused by the rapid change of temperature from the sea to the snow-clad hinterlands.
We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
The quantity of work whic produces a British unit of heat (or so much heat as elevates the temperature of one pound of pure water, at or near ordinary atmospheric temperatures, by 1 F.) is 772 foot-pounds.
Leaving the consideration of radical changes of a vibrating system out of account for the present, the minor differences which have been observed in the appearances of spectra under different sparking conditions are probably to a large extent due to differences in the quantities of material examined, though temperature must alter the violence of the impact and there is a possible effect due to a difference in the impact according as the vibrating system collides with an electron or with a body of atomic dimensions.
This practice is a survival of the older method of moistening the seed with a little water, while the seeds were bruised under edge-runners, so as to lower the temperature and facilitate the bursting of the cells.
Hall proposed to overcome this difficulty by coating the plate thickly with copper on both sides, and deducing the difference of temperature between the two surfaces of junction of the iron and the copper from the thermo-electric force observed by means of a number of fine copper wires attached to the copper coatings at different points of the disk.
By adapting to this instrument various ingenious devices he was enabled to employ it in a great variety of investigations, connected especially with photometry, hygroscopy and the temperature of space.
At the extreme south, where Chilean territory extends across to the Atlantic entrance to the Straits of Magellan, a new climatic influence is encountered in the warm equatorial current flowing down the east coast of South America, which gives to eastern Tierra del Fuego a higher temperature than that of the western shore.