The archiepiscopal sees (the suffragan sees, if any, being placed after each in brackets) are Catania (Acireale), Messina (Lipari, Nicosia, Patti), Monreale (Caltanissetta, Girgenti), Palermo (Cefalu, Mazara, Trapani), Syracuse (Caltagirone, Noto, Piazza Armerina).
Among the most noteworthy churches of Syracuse are the Roman Catholic cathedral of the Immaculate Conception - Syracuse became the see of a Roman Catholic bishop in 1887 - and St Paul's Protestant Episcopal, the first Presbyterian, first Methodist Episcopal, Dutch Reformed and May Memorial (Unitarian) churches, the last erected in memory of Samuel Joseph May (1797-1871), a famous anti-slavery leader, pastor of the church in 1845-1868, and author of Some Recollections of Our Anti-Slavery Conflict (1873).
During the next fifty years Messina changed masters several times, till Timoleon finally expelled the Carthaginians in 343 B.C. In the wars between Agathocles of Syracuse and Carthage, Messina took the side of the Carthaginians.
Lamachus was for immediate action, and there can hardly be a doubt that Syracuse must have fallen before a sudden attack by so formidable an armament in the summer of 415.
Other ports of entry are Buffalo and Dunkirk, on Lake Erie, Niagara Falls, on the Niagara river, Ogdensburg and Cape Vincent, on the St Lawrence river, Plattsburg, on Lake Champlain, Oswego, on Lake Ontario, Rochester, on the Genesee river, Albany and Syracuse in the interior, and Sag Harbor at the E.
In 397 Syracuse had to stand a siege from the Carthaginians under Himilco, who took up his quarters at the Olympieum, but his troops in the marshes below suffered from pestilence, and a masterly combined attack by land and sea by Dionysius ended in his utter defeat.
From 1810 to 1812 he travelled in France, Switzerland and Italy, and on his return to Paris published an Essai critique sur la topographic de Syracuse (1812), designed to elucidate Thucydides.
The hill was frequently occupied in attacks on Syracuse by the besieging force.
The time following the Dionysian tyranny was at Syracuse a time full of the most stirring local and personal interest, under her two deliverers Dion and Timoleon.
The founders of Megara Hyblaea settled here temporarily, according to Thucydides, in the winter of 729-728 B.C., but it seems to have remained almost if not entirely uninhabited until the Athenians used it as a naval station in their attack on Syracuse early in 414 B.C. A number of tombs were excavated in 1894, containing objects belonging to a transitional stage between the second and third Sicel period, attributable roughly to r000-goo B.C., and with a certain proportion of Mycenean importations.