This has been the case from time immemorial, and the provision, in 1869, of direct maritime communication between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, by the completion of the Suez Canal, ensured for the Egyptian route the supremacy in sea-borne traffic to Asia, which the discovery of the passage to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope had menaced for three and a half centuries.
In 1869 he received the visits of the emperor of Austria, the Empress Eugenie and other foreign princes, on their way to the opening of the Suez Canal, and King Edward VII., while prince of Wales, twice visited Constantinople during his reign.
In the Gulfs of Suez and Akaba, almost the only part of the Red Sea in which tidal phenomena are well developed, a sharply defined tidal circulation is found.
The west coast of the Red Sea was dotted with commercial stations of royal foundation from Arsinoe north of Suez to Arsinoe in the south near the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.
But by occupying Hormuz the Portuguese gained command of the Gulf route; and though they thrice failed to capture Aden (1513, 1517 5547), and so entirely to close the Red Sea, they almost destroyed the traffic between India and Suez by occupying Socotra and sending fleets to cruise in the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb.
But a reinforcement under RearAdmiral Nebogatov was despatched from the Baltic via Suez early in March 1905, and the armada proceeded by the Straits of Malacca, Nebogatov joining at Kamranh Bay in Cochin China.
Two great powers, Egypt and Turkey, challenged the naval and commercial supremacy of the Portuguese, but an Egyptian armada was destroyed by Almeida in 1509, and though Ottoman fleets were on several occasions (as in 1517 and 1521) despatched from Suez or Basra, they failed to achieve any success, and the Portuguese were able to close the two principal trade routes 1 Decadas, XII.
He had the course of the Indus explored by the Carfan captain Scylax (q.v.) of Caryanda, who then navigated the Indian Ocean back to Suez (Herod.
In Egypt one in hieroglyphics was added, as in the inscriptions of the Suez canal; in the Grecian provinces, another in Greek (e.g.
The necessities of the khedive of Egypt B had been only temporarily relieved by the sale to gyp. Lord Beaconsfields government of the Suez Canal shares.