The upper angle formed between the leaf and the stem is called its axil; it is there that leaf-buds are normally developed.
Mimnermus laments the degeneracy of the citizens of his day, who could no longer stem the Lydian advance.
The stems of cycads are often described as unbranched; it is true that in comparison with conifers, in which the numerous branches, Stem springing from the main stem, give a characteristic form to the tree, the tuberous or columnar stem of the Cyca daceae constitutes a striking distinguishing feature.
They can be traced upwards from any given point till they are found to pass out of the cylinder, travel through the cortex of the stem and enter a leaf.
The part of the stem below the cotyledons (hypocotyl) commonly plays the greater part in bringing this about.
Only the median or carinal strand of xylem is common to stem and leaf; the lateral cauline strands possibly represent the remains of a centripetally developed mass of primary xylem.
Each podium consists of a portion of the stem bearing one or more leaves, each with an axillary bud or buds, and terminating in a tendril or an inflorescence.
The British genera Spiranthes, Listera and Neottia are also included in this tribe, as is also Vanilla, the elongated stem of which climbs by means of tendril-like aerial roots - the long fleshy pod is the vanilla used for flavouring.
The stem is articulated and branched, attaining a diameter of about 10 cm.
Thus leaves arising from the crown of the root, as in Phyllo- the primrose, are called radical; those on the stem are cauline; on flower-stalks, floral leaves (see Flower).