Birds, p. 353), the avifauna of Madagascar is not entirely composed of such singularities as these.

Allied to the matter just mentioned was Plucker's discovery of the six equations connecting the numbers of singularities in algebraical curves (see Curve).

The most simple case is when three double points come into coincidence, thereby giving rise to a triple point; and a somewhat more complicated one is when we have a cusp of the second kind, or node-cusp arising from the coincidence of a node, a cusp, an inflection, and a double tangent, as shown in the annexed figure, which represents the singularities as on the point of coalescing.

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There are other infinite singularities of detail; but the above are more than sufficient to establish the point.

The singularities (I) and (3) have been termed proper singularities, and (2) and (4) improper; in each of the first-mentioned cases there is a real singularity, or peculiarity in the motion; in the other two cases there is not; in (2) there is not when the point is first at the node, or when it is secondly at the node, any peculiarity in the motion; the singularity consists in the point coming twice into the same position; and so in (4) the singularity is in the line coming twice into the same position.