In the Civil War, Winchester, because of its position in the lower Shenandoah Valley, played a great part, and was several times the scene of engagements between the Union and Confederate forces - in 1862, Jackson's actions of Kernstown and Winchester; in the Gettysburg campaign, the capture of a Union garrison by Ewell (14-15 June 1863); and in Sheridan's campaign of 1864 the battle of Winchester or Opequon (Sept.
Johnston had, long ere this, fallen back from Manassas towards Richmond, and the two armies were in touch when a serious check was given to McClellan by the brilliant successes of Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley.
The Army of the Shenandoah would not be thus handicapped, for Sheridan was a leader of exceptional character.
But in the Newer Appalachians the streams more often follow the trend of the structure until they empty into one of the larger, transverse streams. Thus the Shenandoah flows N.E.
In 1864 he was placed in command of the corps in the Shenandoah Valley, but was defeated by General John C. Breckinridge at Newmarket (15th of May), and was superseded.
In September 1862, during General Lee's first invasion of the North, General IIIcClellan advised that the place be abandoned in order that the io,000 men defending it might be added to his fighting force, but General Halleck would not consent, so that when Lee needed supplies from the Shenandoah Valley he was blocked by the garrison, then under the command of Colonel Dixon S.
A portion of this province in which weak rocks predominate gives an unusually broad valley region, known as the Valley of Virginia, drained by the Shenandoah river, and the headwaters of the James, Roanoke, New, and Holston rivers, which dissect the broad valley floor into gently rolling low hills.
The Virginia Gazette and Winchester Advertiser, the first newspaper published in the Shenandoah Valley, was established here in 1787.
The first settlement here was made about 1747 by Robert Harper, who ran a ferry across the Potomac. The position of Harper's Ferry at the lower end of the Shenandoah Valley rendered it a place of strategic importance during the Civil War.
He was on the staff of General George Crook at the battles of Opequan, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek in the Shenandoah valley, and on the r4th of March 1865 was brevetted major of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services.