The shad fishery is mainly in the lower waters of the Hudson river, and the catch diminished so rapidly from 1901 that in 1904 it was only about one-eighth of the average for the decade from 1890 to 1900.
In the paintings we see gardens irrigated by handbuckets and shad ufs; the latter (buckets hung on a lever-pole) were probably the usual means of raising water for the fields in ancient times, and still are common in Egypt and Nubia, although water-wheels have been known.
Other, but closely allied species, occur on the Atlantic coasts of North America, all surpassing the European species in importance as food-fishes and economic value, viz., the American shad (Clupea sapidissima), the gaspereau or ale-wife (C. mattowocca or vernalis), and the menhaden (C. menhaden).
Briefly, the chief fish of Japan are the bream (tai), the perch (suzuki), the mullet (bora), the rock-fish (hatatate), the grunter (oni-o-koze), the mackerel (saba), the sword-fish (tachi-uwo), the wrasse (kusabi), the haddock (tara), the flounder (karei), and its congeners the sole (hiranie) and the turbot (ishi-garei), the shad (namazu), the salmon (shake), the mash, the carp (koi), the funa, the gold fish (kzngyo), the gold carp (higoi), theloach (dojo), the herring (nishin) the iwashi (Clu pea melanosticta), the eel (unagi), the conger eel (anago), the coffer-fish (hako-uwo), the fugu (Tetrodon), the ai (Plecoglossus altivelis), the sayori (Heminamphus sayoni), the shark (same), the dogfish (maiiuka-zame), the ray (e), the sturgeon (chO-lame) and the maguro (Thynnus sibi).
Two species occur in Europe, much resembling each other - one commonly called allis shad (Clupea alosa or Alosa vulgaris), and the other known as twaite shad(Clupea finta or Alosa finta).
In the Elbe the twaite shad spawns below Hamburg, the allis shad above Dresden.
The allis shad is caught at a size from 15 to 24 in., and is better flavoured than the twaite shad, which is generally smaller.
Sprats are very often confounded with young herrings, which they much resemble, but can always be distinguished by the following characters: they do not possess any teeth on the palate (vomer), like herrings; their gill-covers are smooth, without the radiating striae which are found in the shad and the pilchard; the anal fin consists of .from seventeen to twenty rays, and the lateral line of forty-seven or forty-eight scales.
The State Geological and Economic Survey has made a careful study of the fishes of North Carolina, of the shad fisheries, of oyster culture, and of the development of terrapin.
Yarrell proved conclusively that Donovan's opinion was founded upon an error; unfortunately he contented himself with comparing whitebait with the shad only, and in the end adopted the opinion of the Thames fishermen, whose interest it was to represent it as a distinct adult form; thus the whitebait is introduced into Yarrell's History of British Fishes (1836) as Clupea alba.