Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
About 123132 Kamil led a confederacy of Ayyubite princes against the Seljuk Kaikobad into Asia Minor, but his allies mistrusted him and victory rested with Kaikobad (see SELJUKS).
At the end of the same year (1055) the Seljuk entered the city and after a tumult seized the person of Malik-al.
In 1084 the Seljuk Turks captured it but held it only fourteen years, yielding place to the crusaders, who besieged it for nine months, enduring frightful sufferings.
During his reign - he died in I 155 - the Greek emperors undertook various expeditions in Asia Minor and Armenia; but the Seljuk was cunning enough to profess himself their ally and to direct them against his own enemies.
Thus Persian became the language of their court and government, and when by-and-by they pushed their conquests into Asia Minor, and founded there the Seljuk Empire of Ram, they carried with them their Persian culture, and diffused it among the peoples newly brought under their sway.
In 1037 Seljuk princes were recognized in Merv and Nishapur, and in the ensuing eighteen years the Seljuks conquered Balkh, Jorjan, Tabaristan, Klwarizm, Hamadan, Rai, Isfahan, and finally Bagdad (1055).
It became an important Seljuk town, and late in the 14th century passed into Ottoman hands.
The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.
A remnant of the nation took refuge in an island of the Caspian (Siahcouye); others retired to the Caucasus; part emigrated to the district of Kasakhi in Georgia, and appear for the last time joining with Georgia in her successful effort to throw off the yoke of the Seljuk Turks (1089).