We therefore regard the body of a Cestode as a single organism within which the gonads have become segmented, and the segmentation of the body as a secondary phenomenon associated with diffuse osmotic feeding in the narrow intestinal canal.
The early segmentation of the embryo differs in the several groups, but usually the first leaf or leaves, the apex of the stem and the first root are differentiated early, while a special absorbent organ (the foot) maintains for some time the physiological connexion between the sporophyte and the prothallus.
During segmentation of the dorsal cartilages mentioned above, which send out the transverse processes of diapophyses, there appears between each two centra an intervertebral cartilage, out of which the articulating condyle of the centrum is formed, and becomes attached B A 6 .?..
The segmentation is peculiar, and leads to the formation of a solid gastrula, consisting of a cortex of ectoderm nuclei surrounding a central endodermal mass, which is exposed at one point - the blastopore.
Segmentation is complete, a gastrula is formed, the blastopore closes, the archenteron gives off two coelomic sacs which, as far as is known, are unaffected by the super ficial segmentation of the body that divides the larva into three segments.
The group, the exceptions being met with almost entirely among the higher Brown Seaweeds, in which is found parenchyma produced by the segmentation of an apical cell of the whole shoot, or by cell division in some other type of meristem.
Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
Bary.) (X 400.) undergoes segmentation into more or less numerous globular masses, each of which secretes an enveloping cell-wall and becomes a spore (endospore), and branched systems of sporangia may arise as before (Thamnidium).
In one family (Ligulidae) the segmentation is only expressed in the metameric distribution of the generative organs and the worm is externally unisegmental.
Then follows the phenomenon of gastrulation, by which onehalf of the blastula is invaginated into the other, so as to obliterate the segmentation cavity.