Several of the ranges ascend abruptly from the sea; their base is cut back in high cliffs; the Sierra Santa Lucia, south of San Francisco, is a range of this kind; its seaward slope is almost uninhabitable.
The seaward flanking ranges run up to 4000 ft.
At the seaward end of this promontory is the 13thcentury cathedral; behind which the belfries of four churches, at least as ancient, rise in a row along the crest of the ridge; while behind these, again, are the castle and a background of desolate hills.
It is a commercial town of about 26,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, occupying a rocky plateau and surrounded by massive but dilapidated walls, strengthened by three forts on the seaward side.
The Prussian and Dutch governments annually expend large sums for the protection of the islands, and in some cases the erosion on the seaward side is counterbalanced by the accretion of land on the inner side, fine sandy beaches being formed well suited for sea-bathing, which attracts many visitors in summer.
Belfast Lough is of great though quiet beauty; and the city itself is seen at its best from its seaward approach, with its girdle of hills in the background.
South of Ostermalm, and east of the Kungstradgard and Staden, lies the peninsula of Blasieholm (formerly an island) and, connected by bridges, the islands of Skeppsholm and Kastellholm, the three forming the foreground in the beautiful seaward view from the Norrbro.
There are also batteries and redoubts facing landward and seaward below this fort; but the other defences have been either razed or dismantled.
These consisted of two piers forming a seaward prolongation of the fluvial channel, begun in 1858 and completed in 1861.
Pettersson has made a careful study of ice melting as a motive power in oceanic circulation, and points out that it acts in two ways: on the surface it produces dilution of the water, forming a fresh layer and causing an outflow seaward of surface water with very low salinity; towards the deep water it produces a strong cooling effect, leading to increase of density and sinking of the chilled layers.