Under the designation of a duchy the territory formed the department of Salzach in Upper Austria until 1849, when it was made a separate crownland, and finally in 1861 the management of its affairs was entrusted to a local diet.
Are the Hagengebirge (7844 ft.); the beautiful summit of the Hoher Goll (8263 ft.); the Tennegebirge (7217 ft.); and the Untersberg, an outpost of the Berchtesgaden group. Between the Hagengebirge and the Tennengebirge, which are situated on each side of the Salzach valley, is one of the most magnificent narrow passes of the Alps.
The region of the limestone Alps is composed of several detached groups: a portion of the Kitzbiihler Alps, which contain the famous Thurn pass (4183 ft.); then the Salzburg Alps, which contain the Loferer Steinberge and the peak Birnhorn (8637 ft.); the Reitalm or the Reiteralpe with the peak Stadelhorn (7495 ft.); and the broad mass of the SchOnfeldspitze (8708 ft.), from which the great glacier-covered block of the Ewiger Schnee, or tbergossene Alps projects into the Salzach valley.
Thus Hungary is separated from Austria by the rivers March and Leitha; the river Enns, for a considerable period the extreme western boundary of the Magyar kingdom, still separates Upper and Lower Austria; the Inn and the Salzach divide Austria from Bavaria, and farther west the Iller separates Bavaria from Wurttemberg.