For two decades after the close of these revolutionary troubles in 1870 the supreme power in Venezuela was, for all practical purposes, in the hands of Guzman Blanco.
It soon became clear, however, that the qualities which had made Clement an excellent second in command were not equal to the exigencies of supreme power at a time of peculiar peril and difficulty.
Many believed that the end of autocracy had come, and an extemporized Council of Labour Deputies, anxious to play the part of a Comite de Salut Public, was ready to take over the supreme power and exercise it in the interests of the proletariat.
With the aid of John, burgrave of Montfoort, who had been called in, after the manner of the Italian podestas, and endowed with supreme power for the defence of the town, the Utrechters defeated all the efforts of their bishop, aided by the Hollanders and an aristocratic faction.
The development of the last decade of the 19th century had clearly shown that the educated bourgeoisie, the tiers Nat, in whose hands the supreme power had since 1848 become vested throughout Europe, was either entirely lost to the Church or, at all events, indifferent to what were called Ultramontane tendencies.
It deliberated in secret and had authority over the ministers; it was entrusted with the whole of the national defence and empowered to use all the resources of the state, and it quickly became the supreme power in the republic. Under it the ministers were no more than head clerks.
His great object was doubtless to gain supreme power and to keep it by any means, and by any betrayal that the circumstances demanded; and it is not without significance perhaps that on the very day of Oxford's dismissal he gave a dinner to the Whig leaders, and on the day preceding the queen's death ordered overtures to be made to the elector.5 On the accession of George I.
In virtue of a decree, dated Bogota, the 27th of August 1828, Bolivar assumed the supreme power in Colombia, and continued to exercise it until his death, which took place at San Pedro, near Santa Marta, on the 1 7th of December 1830.
This court has the supreme power in all questions of legality of a sentence, jurisdiction or competency.
Invested with supreme power at this perilous juncture, Stambolov displayed all the qualities of an able diplomatist and an energetic ruler.