The suffrage was restricted, the Press was placed under a strict censorship, and the right of public assemblage was unknown.
Was preserved, and the suffrage was almost universal, but in two kinds: for the third estate nearly all citizens over twenty-five years of age, paying a direct contribution, votedpeasants as well as bourgeois; the country clergy were included among the ecciesiastics; the smaller nobility among the nobles; and finally, Protestants were electors and eligible.
Down till 1890 manhood suffrage had prevailed in all the Southern states also (as to some Southern states now see ante, 5).
In 1897 a law was passed making the right of suffrage dependent on the payment of poll taxes for the preceding two years; but in the following year the State Supreme Court declared this act unconstitutional because the title was not descriptive of the matter.
The legislature established the seat of government at Cheyenne, and granted full suffrage and the right of holding office to women.
On the 2gth of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from oo,ooo to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 40 to 19.80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able to read and write.
Sagasta held on as long as was necessary to secure the promulgation of the universal suffrage law, but he noticed that the queen-regent, when he waited upon her for the despatch of public business, showed almost daily more impatience for a change of policy, until at last, in July 1890, she peremptorily told him that she considered the time had come for calling the Conservatives and their mililary patrons to her councils.
In Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho and Washington universal adult suffrage prevails.
Once having accepted the principle of constitutional government, the emperor-king adhered to it loyally, in spite of the discouragement caused by party struggles embittered by racial antagonisms. If in the Cisleithan half of the monarchy pv rliamentary government broke down, this was through no fault of the emperor, who worked hard to find a mod us vivendi between the factions, and did not shrink from introducing manhood suffrage in the attempt to establish a stable parliamentary system.
His subsequent action justifies, indeed, the belief that, when sanctioning the Fejervary programme, the monarch had already decided that universal suffrage should be introduced in Austria; but even he can scarcely have been prepared for the rapidity with which the movement in Austria gained ground and accomplished its object.