These are generally ensigns of dignity; their form and use varies in different Churches, and they often represent special privileges conferred by the popes, e.g.
This expensive practice was abolished; various checks were placed upon legislative extravagance, and upon financial, special and local legislation generally; and among reform provisions, common enough to-day, but uncommon in 1875, were those forbidding the General Assembly to make irrevocable grants of special privileges and immunities; requiring finance officials of the state to clear their accounts precedent to further eligibility to public office; preventing private gain to state officials through the deposit of public moneys in banks, or otherwise; and permitting the governor to veto specific items in general appropriation bills.
The inland port of Iquitos, on the Maranon, is also rated as first class, and enjoys special privileges because of its distance from the national.
By the time of the municipal law of Julius Caesar (45 B.C.) special privileges were conferred on the decuriones, including the right to appeal to Rome for trial in criminal cases.
Thus the first governmental act of the queen was an error, and dissipated the hope of replacing special privileges by a general guarantee given to the nation, which alone could have postponed a revolution.
When there is no other means of entering into commercial relations with remote and savage races save by enterprise of such magnitude that private individuals could not incur the risk involved, then a company may be well entrusted with special privileges for the purpose, as an inventor is accorded a certain protection by law by means of a patent which enables him to bring out his invention at a profit if there is anything in it.
Meanwhile pressure was being put upon France to admit the German claim to a voice in the affairs of North Africa, a claim fortified by the mission of Count von Tattenbach, German minister at Lisbon, to Fez for the purpose of securing from the sherifian government special privileges for Germany.
The numerous projects, good and bad, that were inaugurated in 1866-1875, and the various kinds of laws and charters conferring special privileges that were secured, led to the constitutional prohibition of special legislation already mentioned.
Foreign chapmen eagerly competed for special privileges of Skanor and Falsterbo, and the Hanseatic merchants in particular aimed at obtaining a monopoly there.
The law of the 23rd of January 1887 (still in force) extended the dispositions of the Civil Code with regard to privileges, and established special privileges in regard to harvested produce, produce stored in barns and farm buildings, and in regard to agricultural implements.