Since 1910 a meat shortage in Austria had made itself more and more felt, especially in the towns, owing to their rapid growth, the decrease of cattle-raising in the Alpine lands, and the reduction in the imports of Serbian meat through the antiSerbian agrarian policy of Hungary.
Albuquerque, foreseeing the dangers that would arise from a shortage of population in his colonies, had encouraged his soldiers to marry captive Brahman and Mahommedan women, and to settle in India as farmers, shopkeepers or artisans.
These measures were largely successful, but in 1902 the export of oak staves was discontinued owing to a shortage of supply.
Chief among them is war, which may cause a shortage of food - supplies, either by its direct ravages or by depleting the supply of agricultural labour.
Ban Jellacic, though loyal to the Emperor, had given expression to their aspirations towards unity as early as 1848; but Francis Joseph handed over the Croats and Serbs to Magyar domination (1867), and Dalmatia, the territory of the Austrian Croats, had been neglected by Vienna for years past; thus it was not till the years immediately preceding the war that it was rapidly developed by the construction of ports and railways and the encouragement of tourist traffic. The Slovenes, who inhabited Carinthia and Carniola, had less grounds for discontent, for the barren Karst had been afforested at the expense of the state; but though they were at the very gate of Serbia, they suffered from a shortage of meat, for Hungary obstructed the traffic in livestock in the interests of her great territorial magnates, and Austria bore the brunt of this.
He believed, he subsequently told a Unionist audience, that the Opposition could have turned out the Government at this time owing to the indignation about the shortage of munitions; but that would have meant an election and renewal of party feeling, and so have prevented the concentration of effort on the war.
Tillage was also made compulsory, but this had little effect on production owing to the shortage of labour, draft animals, manures and agricultural implements, together with the oppressive restrictions caused by the fixing of maximum prices.
He was back in Johannesburg in December 1903, and had to consider the crisis in the gold-mining industry caused by the shortage of native labour.
In view of the anticipated arrival of substantial reinforcements from England there was no great temptation to embark on offensives; and owing to the shortage of artillery ammunition, what there was of it had to be jealously husbanded, although the French divisions were not suffering from this disability so much as the British.
The serious disadvantage under which the Lithuanian army suffers is the shortage of the officer class, but the sturdy, phlegmatic peasants should, under good leadership, make good fighting material.