From the Dorah eastwards the crest of the Hindu Kush again becomes the boundary till it effects a junction with the Murtagh and Sarikol ranges, which shut off China from Russia and India.
By dry distillation the bark yields an empyreumatic oil, called diogott in Russia, used in the preparation of Russia leather; to this oil the peculiar pleasant odour of the leather is due.
In the Spanish campaign of 1810 and 1811 he gained special distinction at the battle of Fuentes d'Onor; and in the expedition to Russia he was present at Smolensk and Valutina, and displayed such bravery and ability in the battle of Borodino that he was made general of division.
This led to the second partition (1793), by which Russia obtained the eastern provinces with three millions of inhabitants.
In May 1812 he mediated a peace between Russia and Turkey, so as to enable Russia to use all her forces against France (peace of Bucharest); and on the 18th of July, at Orebro, peace was also concluded between Great Britain on one side and Russia and Sweden on the other.
See Kazimierz Stadnicki, The Sons of Gedymin (Pol.) (Lemberg, 1849-1853); Vladimir Bonifatevich Antonovich, Monograph on the History of Western Russia (Rus.), vol.
The grand-duke's connexion with the courts of Russia and Holland - his mother was a Russian grand-duchess and his wife, Sophia Louisa (1824-1897), a princess of the Netherlands - tended to give the Weimar society a cosmopolitan character, and the grand-duke devoted himself largely to encouraging men of intellect, whether Germans or foreigners, who came to visit or to settle in the town.
In connexion with their use as food we may observe that of recent years in Scandinavia and Russia an alcoholic spirit has been distilled from Cladonia rangiferina and extensively consumed, especially in seasons when potatoes were scarce and dear.
The Volga is reached from central Russia by seven lines of railways, including one to Kazan, and three main lines radiate from the Volga E.
During a short visit paid by the emperor of Russia to Berlin in November Bismarck discovered that forged despatches misrepresenting the policy of Germany in the Eastern Question had been communicated to him.