There are several quaint old houses, with high gables, in the market-place, in the middle of which stand a Roland column, of about 1445, and a bronze figure known as the Butterjungfer (butter-girl), of uncertain origin and meaning, but now regarded as the palladium of the town.
As a minister of the crown Roland exhibited a bourgeois brusqueness of manner and a remarkable combination of political prejudice with administrative ability.
Among the slain was one Hruodland, or Roland, margrave of the Breton march, whose death gave rise to the Chanson de Roland (see Roland, Legend or).
In the contested election of 1159, for instance, though a majority of the cardinals had elected Cardinal Roland (Alexander III.), the defeated candidate Cardinal Octavian (Victor IV.), while his rival was modestly hesitating to accept the honour, seized the pluviale and put it on his own shoulders hastily, upside down; and it was on this ground that the council of Pavia in r 160 based their declaration in favour of Victor, and anathematized Alexander.
Twenty-one Girondin deputies were next brought to the bar and, with the exception of Valaze who stabbed himself, were beheaded on the last day of October, Madame Roland and other Girondins of note suffered later.
Lamy, Deux femmes celebres, Madame Roland et Charlotte Corday (Paris, 1884).; C. Bader, Madame Roland, d'apres des lettres et des manuscrits inedits (Paris, 1892); A.
Created the desire for a national hero distinguished for his exploits against the Moors, and Roland was thus supplanted by Bernardo del Carpio.
In person Madame Roland was attractive though not beautiful; her ideas were clear and far-reaching, her manner calm, and her power of observation extremely acute.
The oldest manuscript of the Chanson de Roland that we possess is also a manuscript written in England, and amongst the others of less importance we may mention La Chancun de Willame, the MS. of which has (June 1903) been published in facsimile at Chiswick (cf.
Dauban, Etude sur Madame Roland et son temps (Paris, 1864); V.