He himself became first lord of the treasury and lord privy seal, with the duke of Devonshire (remaining lord president of the council) as leader of the House of Lords; Lord Lansdowne remained foreign secretary, Mr (afterwards Lord) Ritchie took the place of Sir Michael Hicks-Beach (afterwards Lord St Aldwyn) as chancellor of the exchequer, Mr J.
After a childhood spent in an austerity which stigmatized as unholy even the novels of Sir Walter Scott, he began his college career at the age of fourteen at a time when Christopher North and Dr Ritchie were lecturing on Moral Philosophy and Logic. His first philosophical advance was stimulated by Thomas Brown's Cause and Effect, which introduced him to the problems which were to occupy his thought.
But Mr Chamberlain's new programme for a general tariff, with new taxes on food arranged so as to give a preference to colonial products, involved a radical alteration of the established fiscal system, and such out-and-out Unionist free-traders in the cabinet as Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, and outside it, like Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr Arthur Elliot (secretary to the treasury), were entirely opposed to this.
Among wellknown natives of the town were Adam Smith, Henry Balnaves of Halhill, the Scottish reformer and lord of session in the time of Queen Mary; George Gillespie, the theologian and a leading member of the Westminster Assembly, and his younger brother Patrick (1617-1675), a friend of Cromwell and principal of Glasgow University; John Ritchie (1778-1870), one of the founders of the Scotsman; General Sir John Oswald (1771-1840), who had a command at San Sebastian and Vittoria.
Of Mechanical Refrigeration (Chicago); Redwood, Theoretical and Practical Ammonia Refrigeration (New York); Stephansky, Practical Running of an Ice and Refrigerating Plant (Boston); Ledoux, Ice-Making Machines (New York); Wallis-Taylor, Refrigerating and Ice-Making Machines (London) Ritchie Leask, Refrigerating Machinery (London); De Volson Wood, Thermodynamics, Heat Motors and Refrigerating Machinery (New York); Linde, Kdlteerzeugungsmaschine Lexikon der gesamten Technik; Behrend, Eis and KdlteerzeugungsMaschinen (Halle); De Marchena, Kompressions Kdltemaschinen (Halle); Theodore Koller, Die Kdlteindustrie (Vienna); Voorhees, Indicating the Refrigerating Machine (Chicago); Norman Selfe, Machinery for Refrigeration (Chicago); Hans Lorenz, Modern Refrigerating Machinery (London); Lehnert, Moderne Kdltetechnik (Leipzig); L.
De la Rive, Peter Barlow (1776-1862), William Ritchie (1 790-1837), William Sturgeon (1783-1850), and others; and Davy (Phil.