Accordingly in 1290 a statute was passed, Quia emptores, which allowed the tenant to alienate whenever he pleased, but the alienee or person to whom he granted was to hold the land not of the alienor but of the same immediate lord, and by the same services as the alienor held it before.
The legal character of this transaction is summed up in a well-known passage in the Digest: - Interdictum de precariis merito introductum est, quia nulla eo nomine juris civilis actio esset, magis enim ad donationes et beneficii causam, quam ad negotii contracts spectat precarii conditio.
Every seignory now existing must have been created before the Statute of Quia Emptores (1290), which forbade the future creation of estates in fee-simple by subinfeudation.
Credo, quia absurdum was applied, notably by the popular writers of the French Second Empire, in a fashion grotesquely literal enough to scandalize Tertullian himself.
Then the priest invites those present to approach and, dipping his thumb in the ashes, marks them as they kneel with the sign of the cross on the forehead (or in the case of clerics on the place of tonsure), with the words: Memento, homo, quia pulvis es et in pulverem reverteris (Remember, man, that thou art dust and unto dust thou shalt return).
In that case, all who accept a revelation without professing to understand its content would require to be ranked as mystics; the fierce sincerity of Tertullian's credo quia ab-' surdum, Pascal's reconciliation of contradictions in Jesus Christ, and Bayle's half-sneering subordination of reason to faith would all be marks of this standpoint.
Anselm's motto, Credo ut intelligam, marks well the distance that has been traversed since Tertullian's Credo quia absurdum est.
With regard to the land and the services due therefrom a beginning was made of the policy which culminated in the statutes of Mortmain and of Quia Emptores.