The abundant lignite coal in the region was to operate pumps for raising water from the river into canals crossing the valley.
In more modern times there has been the same excavation of shallow pits, and sluicing, sifting and sorting, by hand labour, the only machinery used being chain pumps made of earthen bowls to remove the water from the deeper pits.
Mareotis has no outlet, and the water is kept at a uniform level by means of powerful pumps which neutralize the effect of the Nile flood.
Cornish pumps are economical in running expenses, provided the driving engine is of proper design and the disadvantages incurred in conveying steam underground are avoided.
Columbia is in a fine farming region; is engaged extensively in the mining and shipping of phosphates; has an important trade in live-stock, especially mules; manufactures cotton, lumber, flour, bricks, pumps and woollen goods; and has marble and stone works.
The modern distilling plant consists of two main parts termed the evaporator and condenser; in addition there must be a boiler (sometimes steam is run off the main boilers, but this practice has several disadvantages), pumps for circulating cold water in the condenser and for supplying salt water to the evaporator, and a filter through which the aerated water passes.
The heart receives blood from the gills and mantle, and pumps it through arteries to the body.
Some of the earlier sinkings of this kind, when pumps had to be depended on for keeping down the water, were conducted at great cost, as, for instance, at South Hetton, and more recently Ryhope, near Sunderland, through the magnesian limestone of Durham.
But the captain, having some unusual reason for believing that rare good luck awaited him in those latitudes; and therefore being very averse to quit them, and the leak not being then considered at all dangerous, though, indeed, they could not find it after searching the hold as low down as was possible in rather heavy weather, the ship still continued her cruisings, the mariners working at the pumps at wide and easy intervals; but no good luck came; more days went by, and not only was the leak yet undiscovered, but it sensibly increased.
The heart c lying in the pericardium is seen in close proximity to the renal organ, and consists of a single auricle receiving blood from the gill, and of a single ventricle which pumps it through the body by an anterior and posterior aorta.