Distant, are La Brea, for the line to Puerto Cortes, and San Lorenzo, for Tegucigalpa.
Lines from Puerto Bolivar to Machala, province of El Oro, and another from Bahia de Caraquez to Chone, were under construction in 1908.
Bolivar was entrusted with the command of the important post of Puerto Cabello, but not being supported he had to evacuate the place; and owing to the inaction of Miranda the Spaniards recovered their hold over the country.
Owing to a dangerous bar at the mouth of the Magdalena the trade of the extensive territory tributary to that river, which is about 60 ho of that of the entire country, must pass in great part through Barranquilla and its seaport, making it the principal commercial centre of the republic. Savanilla was used as a seaport until about 1890, when shoals caused by drifting sands compelled a removal to Puerto Colombia, a short distance westward, where a steel pier, 4000 ft.
Bolivar therefore resolved, if possible, to strike a decisive blow; and this accordingly he did at Carabobo, where, encountering Torre, he so completely routed the Spaniards that the shattered remains of their army were forced to take refuge in Puerto Cabello, where two years after they surrendered to Paez.
South of Puerto Principe is Santa Cruz del Sur (pop. in 1907, 1640) on the south coast.
Surveys were completed in 1909 for an extension of the Oroya line from a point on its Cerro de Pasco branch eastward to the Ucayali, and another transandean line frequently discussed is projected from Paita across the Andes to Puerto Limon, on the Maranon-a distance of 410 m.
In the south the descent from the table-land to the valley of the Guadalquivir is again comparatively gradual, but even here in the eastern half of the Sierra Morena the passes are few, the most important being the Puerto de Despeflaperros, where the Rio Magana, a sub-tributary of the Guadalimar, has cut for itself a deep gorge through which the railway ascends from Andalusia to Madrid.
The first-class ports are La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Ciudad Bolivar, Maracaibo and Carupano, and the second-class are Sucre, Juan Griego, Guiria, Calm Colorado, Guanta, Tucacas, La Vela and Porlamar.
The central part of this group of estuaries is called Worsley Sound, and the last and farthest inland of its arms is Last Hope Inlet (Ultima Esperanza), on which is situated the Chilean agricultural colony of Puerto Consuelo.