In the second case all roots that have struck downwards into a cold uncongenial subsoil must be pruned off if they cannot be turned in a lateral direction, and all the lateral ones that have become coarse and fibreless must also be shortened back by means of a clean cut with a sharp knife, while a compost of rich loamy soil with a little bone-meal, and leaf-mould or old manure, should be filled into the trenches from which the old sterile soil has been taken.
If a piece of bark and cortex are torn off, the occlusion takes longer, because the tissues have to creep over the exposed area of wood; and the same is true of a transverse cut severing the branch, as may be seen in any properly pruned tree.
They retain their Armenian liturgies and rites, pruned to suit the Vatican standards of orthodoxy, and they recognize the pope as head of the church.
Fruit trees trained as espaliers, fans or cordons against walls, trellises or fences, are not only pruned carefully in the winter but must be also pruned during the early summer months.
It invariably happens during the most active period of feeding, three or four days after the fourth moult up to the rising, and generally appears after a meal of coarse leaves, obtained from mulberries pruned the same year and growing in damp soil.
When worked at the top of a stem formed of the stock, the growth from the graft or bud must be pruned in a similar way.
They pruned Burkes Economical Reform Bill till it left as many abuses as it suppressed; and though the bill prohibited the grant of pensions above 300, they hastily gave away pensions of much larger value to their own friends before the bill had received the royal assent.
Cordons of apples and pears have to be similarly treated, but cordons of peaches and nectarines are pruned so as to provide the necessary annual succession of young bearing wood.
The head is pruned to form six or eight strong offsets; and by judicious use of the knife, and by training, preferably on a hoop placed within them, these are caused to grow outwards and upwards to a height of about 6 ft.
Thus in the peach, nectarine, apricot, plum and cherry, which are commonly trained fan-fashion, the first three (and also the morello cherry if grown) will have to be pruned so as to keep a succession of young annual shoots, these being their fruit-bearing wood.