The fore-wing also has no stigma, and the whole wing is almost destitute of nervures and areolets, while the pronotum does not reach back to the tegulae, and the feelers are elbowed (fig.
The tergal regions of the mesothorax and of the metathorax are hidden under the pronotum and the elytra when the latter are closed, except that the mesothoracic scutellum is of ten visible - a small triangular or semicircular plate between the bases of the elytra (fig.
The light proceeds from a pair of conspicuous smooth ovoid spots on the pronotum and from an area beneath the base of the abdomen.
In the thorax the pronotum and prosternum are closely associated with the mesothorax, but the pleura of the prothorax are usually shifted far forwards, so that the forelegs are inserted just behind the head.
The Membracidae are remarkable on account of the backward prolongation of the pronotum After Howard, Year Book U.S. Dept.
The pronotum and elytra are often adorned with bright colours or metallic lustre, and marked with stripes or spots.