But Philips assassination in 336 fundamentally altered the situation.
In Anjou, Touraine, Maine and Poitou, lords, towns and abbeys made their submission, won over by Philips bribes despite Pope Innocent III.s attempts at intervention.
Drakes singeing of Philips beard in Cadiz harbour in 1587 delayed the expedition for a year, and a storm again postponed it in the early summer of 1588.
Quinet, Marnix de St Aldegonde (Paris, 1854); Juste, Vie de Marnix (The Hague, 1858); Fredericq, Marnix en zijne nederlandsche geschriften (Ghent, 1882); Tjalma, Philips van Marnix, heer van Sint-Aldegonde (Amsterdam, 1896).
But unfortunately for Germany the papal chair at this time was occupied by Innocent III., a pope who emulated Hildebrand in ambition and in statesmanship. At first vacillating, but by no means indifferent, Innocent was spurred to action when a number of princes met at Spires in May 1200, declared Philip to be the lawful king, and denied the right of the pope to interfere, lie was also annoyed by Philips attitude with regard to a vacancy in the archbishopric of Cologne, and in March 1201 he declared definitely for Otto.
During the age of Anne various Augustan poets in whom the lyrical faculty was slight, from Congreve and Richard Duke down to Ambrose Philips and William Somerville, essayed the epistle with more or less success, and it was employed by Gay for several exercises in his elegant persiflage.
John began operations with an attack from Anjou, supported by the notably capricious nobles of Aquitaine, and was routed by Philips son at La Roche aux Moines, near Angers, on the 2nd of July 1214.
A few half-hearted campaigns against recalcitrant vassals and a long and obstinate quarrel with the papacy over his adulterous union with Bertrade de Montfort, countess of Anjou, represented the total activity of Philips reign; he was greedy and venal, by no means disdaining the petty profits of brigandage, and he never left his own domains.
And, after summoning Bath in vain, Monmouth, with a disordered force, began his retrograde march through Philips Norton and Frome, continually harassed by Feversham's soldiers.