The Phase Rule of Willard Gibbs, especially as developed by Bakhuis Roozeboom, is a most useful guide in such investigations.

The phase rule combined with the latent heat equation contains the whole theory of chemical and physical equilibrium.

For the quantitative study of such systems in detail it is convenient to draw plane diagrams which are theoretically projections of the curves of the solid phase rule diagram on one or other of these planes.

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The phase rule combined with the latent heat equation enables us to trace the general phenomena of equilibrium in solutions, and to elucidate and classify cases even of great complexity.