There are two forms of the plant, an annual and a biennial, which spring indifferently from the same crop of seed - the one growing on during summer to a height of from to 2 ft., and flowering and perfecting seed; the other producing the first season only a tuft of radical leaves, which disappear in winter, leaving under ground a thick fleshy root, from the crown of which arises in spring a branched flowering stem, usually much taller and more vigorous than the flowering stems of the annual plants.
During this period logarithms were invented, trigonometry and algebra developed, analytical geometry invented, dynamics put upon a sound basis, and the period closed with the magnificent invention of (or at least the perfecting of) the differential calculus by Newton and Leibnitz and the discovery of gravitation.
Promoted him to the bishopric of Auxerre, and here he continued to live in comparative quiet, repairing his cathedral and perfecting his translations, for the rest of his days, though troubled towards the close by the insubordination and revolts of his clergy.
Galileo devoted all his time to improving and perfecting the telescope.
It is the development of this craft in connexion with the perfecting of flint-glass that makes the 18th century the most important period in the history of English glass-making.
The formulation of the atomic theory by John Dalton gave a fresh impetus to the development of quantitative analysis; and the determination of combining or equivalent weights by Berzelius led to the perfecting of the methods of gravimetric analysis.
From 1677 onwards he did but finish perfecting Louis XIV.s army in accordance with the suggestions left by his father, and made no fundamental changes: neither the definite abandonment of the feudal arrire-ban and of recruitingsources of disorder and insubordinationnor the creation of the militia, which allowed the nation to penetrate into all the ranks of the army, nor the adoption of the gun with the bayonet,which was to become the ultima ratio of peoples as the cannon was that of sovereigns,nor yet the uniform, intended to strengthen esfrrit de corps, were due to him.
After this he reigned for 342 years, devoting most of his energy to perfecting the administration of his vast dominions, which he did with such wisdom and liberality as to earn the commendation of Hsiian Tsang.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth showed the necessity for igniting precipitates before weighing them, if they were not decomposed by this process; and he worked largely with Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in perfecting the analysis of minerals.
Thevart, he succeeded in perfecting the process of casting plate-glass.