The army was gradually disbanded, and Pepe spent several years in England, France and other countries, publishing a number of books and pamphlets of a political character and keeping up his connexion with the Carbonari.
Against the Austrians in 1848; but after the coup d'etat at Naples he followed General Guglielmo Pepe in disobeying Ferdinand's order for the withdrawal of the troops, and proceeded to Venice to aid in defending that city.
Tuscany and Naples had both joined the Italian league; a Tuscan army started for Lombardy on the 3oth of April, and 17,000 Neapolitans commanded by Pepe (who had returned after 28 years of exile) went to assist Durando in intercepting the Austrian reinforce1irnts under Nugent.
The latter, commanded by General Pepe (q.v.), who made no attempt to defend the difficult defiles of the Abruzzi, were defeated, after a half-hearted struggle at Rieti (March 7th, 1821), and the Austrians entered Naples.
At last, on the 24th of August 1849, when all provisions and ammunition were exhausted, Manin, who had courted death in vain, succeeded in negotiating an honourable capitulation, on terms of amnesty to all save Manin himself, Pepe and some others, who were to go into exile.
While engaged in suppressing brigandage in the Capitanata, Pepe organized the carbonari into a national militia, and was preparing to use them for political purposes.
On Napoleon's escape from Elba (1815) Murat, after some hesitation, placed himself on the emperor's side and waged war against the Austrians, with Pepe on his staff.
The defeat of General Pepe by the Austrians at Rieti (March 7, 1821) and the re-establishment of King Ferdinands autocratic power under the protection of Austrian bayonets were the effective assertion of this principle.
In the disturbances of 1820 he adhered to the Constitutionalist party, and fought under General Pepe (q.v.) against the Austrians.