Many patents have been taken out in this direction, one of the best known being that of Groth, experimented upon by S.
In 1888 the Alliance Aluminium Co., organized to work certain patents for winning the metal from cryolite by means of sodium, erected plant in London, Hebburn and Wallsend, and by 1889 were selling the metal at 11s.
Of course, patents of such obvious value did not escape criticism, and invalidity was freely urged against them on various grounds.
Congress, however, adjourned without making the appropriation, and meanwhile Morse sailed for Europe to take out patents there.
Leagues of public land) was settled affirmatively in 1867, but the final land patents were not issued until 1884 by the national government.
All the while, however, the patents of the admiralty judge purported to confer on him a far ampler jurisdiction than the jealousy of the other courts would concede to him.
It was pointed out that, in conformity with the decree of the 9th of April 1902, it had become necessary to coerce those congregations and associations which had not fulfilled the formalities prescribed by the law of 1887, and also those engaged in commerce and industry which had not taken cut patents with a view to their taxation.
It was very early recognized - and, indeed, is mentioned in the first patents of Bell, and in a caveat filed by Elisha Gray in the United States patent office only some two hours after Bell's application for a patent - that sounds and spoken words might be transmitted to a distance by causing the vibrations of a diaphragm to vary the resistance in the circuit.
This incident well illustrates the ground of his objection to the British system of patent law, which he looked upon as calculated to strifle invention and impede progress; the patentees in this case did not manage to make a practical success of their invention themselves, but the existence of prior patents was sufficient to turn him aside from a path which conducted him to valuable results when afterwards, owing to the expiry of those patents, he was free to pursue it as he pleased.
The more important subjects with which it deals are trade, shipping and railways; taxation, bounties, the borrowing of money on the credit of the Commonwealth; the postal and telegraphic services; defence, census and statistics; currency, coinage, banking, bankruptcy; weights and measures; copyright, patents and trade marks; marriage and divorce; immigration and emigration; conciliation and arbitration in industrial disputes.