In the case of general maps on a smaller scale, the orographic features must be generalized by a skilful draughtsman and artist.
While it is throughout essentially a mountainous country, very complicated in its orographic features and interlocking river systems, two principal mountain axes form its ruling features - the Rocky Mountains proper, above referred to, and the Coast Ranges.
High, forming a confused orographic system, which is by no means fully understood.
The border-ridge character of the Sayans (Ergik-targak-taiga) is well established, and the same orographic character is confirmed by recent explorers with regard to the Sailughem range of the Altai.
The supreme orographic importance of this great Central Asian mountain system was recognized in a fashion even by the geographers of ancient Greece.
The western or mountainous division is the wettest at all seasons, each orographic group forming a centre of heavy precipitation.
West of the Cordillera Oriental, where special conditions prevail, a great desert plateau stretches entirely across one corner of the republic. Apart from the Andean system there is a group of low, broken, gneiss ranges stretching along the east side of Bolivia among the upper affluents of the Mamore and Guapore, which appear to belong to the older Brazilian orographic system, from which they have been separated by the erosive action of water.
In consequence of this peculiarity, climatic or orographic changes in Europe tend to drive animals and plants into a cul de sac, from which there is no escape; but in America similar climatic waves merely cause the species alternately to retreat and advance.
The Abyssinian highlands are thus a clearly marked orographic division.
From an orographic point of view, Bohemia constitutes amongst the Austrian provinces a separate massif, bordered on three sides by mountain ranges: on the S.W.