Classes: Arachnida, Insecta (including Sub-Classes M y riapoda, Hexapoda), Crustacea (including Sub-Classes Entomostraca, Malacostraca), Epizoa (Epizootic Crustacea), Annellata (Chaeto p ods and Leeches), Cirripedia.

Then the quantity E cos OdS is the product of the normal component of the force and an element of the surface, and if this is summed up all over the surface we have the total electric flux or induction through the surface, or the surface integral of the normal force mathematically expressed by JE cos OdS, provided that the dielectric constant of the medium is unity.