The chief merit of these early Capets, indeed, was that they had sons, so that their dynasty lasted on without disastrous minorities or quarrels over the division of inheritance.
All citizens of the republic are fully equal before the law and enjoy equal civil and political rights whatever be their race, language or religion; the special provisions for the protection of national and other minorities have already been referred to.
The panic-stricken severity of minorities is proverbial, but it is not to be forgotten that the Irish Protestants had been turned out of house and home twice within fifty years.
The question of the rights of the national minorities and the enforcement of the Land Act were among the problems of the day that led on June 3 1921 to the fall of the Cabinet of Ulmanis.
The special commission, after hearing the views of Trumbic and Bratianu, recommended a line which as nearly as possible balanced the Serb and Rumanian minorities left to Rumania and Yugoslavia respectively, and secured to the latter the essentially Serb districts of Torontal county: but at the instance of the French this line was modified to include Vrsac (Versecz) and Bela Crkva (Weisskirchen) in Yugoslavia.
The bishops, the real inheritors of the imperial idea of government, had become great landowners through enormous donatkins made to the Church, and allied as they were to the aristocracy, whence their ranks were continually recruited, they had gradually identified themselves with the interests of their class and had adopted its customs; while thanhi to long minorities and civil wars the aristocracy of the high officials had taken an equally important social position.
They had to combat the feudal nobility, and later, the younger branches of the royal house established in the great duchies, and the main reason for the permanence of their power was, perhaps, the fact that there were few minorities among them.
They became regents to their young children; and the experience of all medieval minorities reiterates the lesson - woe to the land where the king is a child and the regent a woman.
It was the first modern attempt to define Lithuania ethnographically, to respect national minorities and continue the connexion with Russia upon the federative principle.
These 239 sub-districts, according to the bill, were to be grouped in 20 districts, 10 Czech, six German and four bilingual, in which provision was to be made for minorities throughout the whole land through official translation bureaus.