The capital is Bello Horizonte, or Cidade de Minas; other important cities and towns are: the former capital, Ouro Preto, Barbacena, Diamantina, Baependy (pop. 22,817 in 1890), on the head-waters of the Rio Verde, the centre of a rich tobacco-producing district; Curvello (8071), north of Sabara in the Rio das Velhas Valley, the centre of a cottongrowing district and cotton manufactures; Entre Rios (7681), in the coffee district of south-east Minas; Januaria (5888), a river port of the Sao Francisco in northern Minas; Juiz de Fora; Marianna (4751), an episcopal town east of Ouro Preto, Mar de Hespanha (18,712), the centre of a productive and populous agricultural municipality of south-east Minas; Paracatu (21,418), an important commercial centre of western Minas near the Goyaz frontier; Queluz (12,600), on the Central do Brazil railway; Congonhas do Campo (10,902), in the municipality of Queluz, celebrated for its miracle-working image, its great church and chapels, and the pilgrimages to its shrine; Sabara (4959), a railway junction on the Central do Brazil, and port on the Rio das Velhas; Congonhas de Sabath (14,066), in the municipality of Sabath, where the celebrated Morro Velho gold-mine is situated; Sao Joao d'El-Rei (15,820) an important commercial mining and pastoral centre, near the Rio das Mortes, connected with the Central do Brazil railway by a branch called the Oeste de Minas; and Uberaba (12,231), a commercial town of the western campos of Minas, connected with Sao Paulo by the Mogyana and Sao Paulo railways.
In 1822 Minas became a province of the empire created by Dom Pedro I., though a revolutionary outbreak had occurred in Ouro Preto the year before.
Swine do well in all parts of the country, especially in Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul, and domestic pork and lard are' slowly supplanting the heavily-taxed foreign products.
About the year 1437 two Hussite monks named Minas and Balint (i.e.
By Goyaz, Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo and Parana, S.
Of the Bahia group, the Jequitinhonha, sometimes called the Belmonte on its lower course, is the longest and most important, rising near Serro in the state of Minas Geraes and flowing in a curving north-east direction for a distance of about 500 m., 84 of which are navigable inland from the sea.
Since that time, however, valuable maps have been published by an Oficina de mensura de tierras, by a seccion de geografia y minas connected with the department of public works, by the Oficina hidrografica, and more especially in connexion with surveys necessitated by the boundary disputes with Argentina, which were settled by arbitration in 1899 and 1902.
The states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes are the largest producers, but it is also grown for export in Espirito Santo, Bahia and Ceara.
The governor retreated to a position out of it, and was only awaiting reinforcements from Minas to retake it; but, Duguay Trouin threatening to burn it, he was obliged on the 10th of October to sign a capitulation, and pay to the French admiral 610,000 crusados, Soo cases of sugar, and provisions for the return of the fleet to Europe.
The copper deposits of Minas Geraes are said to be promising.