His enemies, headed by his elder brother Mikhail and the vicechancellor Vorontsov, powerless while his diplomacy was faultless, quickly took advantage of his mistakes.
COUNT MIKHAIL MIKHAILOVICH SPERANSKI (1772-1839), Russian statesman, the son of a village priest, spent his early days at the ecclesiastical seminary in St Petersburg, where he rose to be professor of mathematics and physics.
Prince Gorchakov, Alexander Mikhailovich (1798-1883), Russian statesman, cousin of Princes Petr and Mikhail Gorchakov, was born on the 16th of July 1798, and was educated at the lyceum of Tsarskoye Selo, where he had the poet Pushkin as a school-fellow.
About this time he was hampered by the persistent opposition of the vicechancellor Mikhail Vorontsov, formerly his friend, now his jealous rival, who was secretly supported by Frederick the Great.
See Vasily Ratch, Memorials of Count Arakcheev (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1864); Mikhail Ivanovich Semevsky, Count Arakcheev and the Military Colonies (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1871); Theodor Schiemann, Gesch.
Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich (1795-1861), brother of the last named, entered the Russian army in 1807 and took part in the campaigns against Persia in 1810, and in 1812-1815 against France.
The early part of Alexander's reign (1801-25) was a period of generous ideas and liberal reforms. Under the influence of his Swiss tutor, Frederick Cesar de Laharpe, he Alex- had imbibed many of the democratic ideas of the time, and he aspired to put them in practice, with the assistance at first of three young friends, Novosiltsov, Adam Czartoryski and Strogonov, who were his intimate counsellors and were popularly known as the Triumvirate, and later of Mikhail Speranski.
Earlier members of the family were Mikhail (d.
Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasilievich (1711-1765), Russian poet and man of science, was born in the year 1711, in the village of Denisovka (the name of which was afterwards changed in honour of the poet), situated on an island not far from Kholmogori, in the government of Archangel.
In 1610 he was imprisoned by the king of Poland, but his piety and virtues led to the election of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov, to the throne of the tsars in 1613.