In the beginning of the 16th century one of its leading citizens, Francesco Burlamacchi, made a noble attempt to give political cohesion to Italy, but perished on the scaffold (1548); his statue by Ulisse Cambi was erected on the Piazza San Michele in 1863.1', As a principality formed in 1805 by Napoleon in favour of his sister Elisa and her husband Bacchiocchi, Lucca was for a few years wonderfully prosperous.
The younger Michele was a mere courtier and spendthrift, but Elena seems to have been a woman of superior stamp. She was tenderly loved by her famous son, and his letters prove that she retained his fullest confidence through all the vicissitudes of his career.
Three new gilds were created, and nine priors appointed, three from the anti maggiori, three from the minori, and three from the new ones, while each of these classes in turn was to choose the gonfaloniere of justice; the first to hold the office was Michele di Lando.
His real name was Michele Pezza, and he was born of low parentage at Itri; he had committed many murders and robberies in the Terra di Lavoro, but by good luck combined with audacity he always escaped capture, whence his name of Fra Diavolo, popular superstition having invested him with the characters of a monk and a demon, and it seems that at one time he actually was a monk.
His grandfather, Michele Savonarola, a Paduan physician of much repute and learning, had settled in Ferrara, and gained a large fortune there.
Besides the cathedral, the baptistery and the famous leaning tower, the city possesses several notable churches, as the Renaissance church of the Tuscan order of St Stephen, built in 1562 from plans by Vt,sari; San Niccolo, with a four-storeyed tower (1230), built by Niccola Pisano, and the tomb of John of Swabia, the parricide; Santa Caterina (1262); Santa Maria della Spina, in the Italo-Gothic style, built in 1230 and restored in 1872; San Sepolchro, erected in 1150 by Diotisalvi; San Francesco, with frescoes byTaddeo Gaddi; and the basilica of San Michele (Io18).
Of his articles in this and other periodicals have been put together in book form, Les Maitres de l'histoire: Renan, Taine,, Michele (1894); Portraits et souvenirs (1897: on Hugo, Fustel de Coulanges, V.
GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA (1452-1498), Italian monk and martyr, was born at Ferrara on the 21st of September 1452, the third child of Michele Savonarola and his wife Elena Bonaccossi of Mantua.
Not far from Turin are also the castles of Moncalieri, Stupinigi, Rivoli, Racconigi, Agle, Venaria, and the ancient monastery of the Sagra di San Michele (753 metres above sea-level), famous for its view of the Alps as far as the beginning of the Lombard plain.
The demagogues were executed or forced to fly, and Michele di Lando with great ingratitude was exiled.