On a rock which formerly jutted into the Mersey ZEthelfleda.
The plain sweeps round south of the Lancashire coal-field, forms the valley of the Mersey from Stockport to the sea, and farther south in Cheshire the salt-bearing beds of the Keuper marls give rise to a characteristic industry.
Its mineral wealth was not suspected, although as far back as 1850 coal of fair quality had been found between the Dee and the Mersey rivers, and gold had been discovered in two or three localities during 1852.
Owing to the Mersey being here fordable at low water,.
The mean annual temperature diminishes very regularly from south-west to northeast, the west coast being warmer than the east, so that the mean temperature at the mouth of the Mersey is as high as that at the mouth of the Thames.
Despite competition from the Mersey tunnel, these ferries continue to transport millions of passengers annually, and have a considerable share in the heavy goods traffic.
The docks, which covered an area of 7 acres, were opened in 1847, and after thrice changing hands were made over in 1858 to the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, a body created by act of 1857, to control the harbourage on both sides of the river.
On the west there are Solway Firth, Morecambe Bay, the estuaries of the Mersey and Dee, Cardigan Bay of the Welsh coast, and the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary.
It lies in open country near the river Dane, having water communications by the Trent and Mersey canal, and a branch giving access to the Shropshire Union canal.
Birkenhead Park was opened in 1847, Mersey Park in 1885; while a tract of moorland 6 m.