Cattle and mealies constitute the most valuable possessions of the natives.
Amongst the cultivated products are mealies and manioc, the sugar-cane and cotton, coffee and tobacco plants.
Since 1906 an important trade has also arisen in the raising of mealies for export by white farmers.
In the Cape, Natal and the Transvaal coal mining is largely developed; in the Transvaal and the Cape tobacco is grown extensively; sugar, tea and other tropical and sub-tropical produce are largely cultivated in Natal and the Portuguese territory, and, since 1905, mealies have become an important article of export.
Oats are grown over a wider area than any other crop, and next to mealies are the heaviest crop grown.
The principal cereal crops are wheat, with a yield of 1,701,000 bushels in 1904, oats, barley, rye, mealies (Indian corn) and Kaffir corn (a kind of millet).