Of these the four greater patriarchates are those of Alexandria (with two patriarchs, Latin and Coptic); Anticch (with four, Latin, Graeco-Melchite, Maronite and Syriac); Constantinople (Latin) and Jerusalem (Latin).
The Maronite scholar, Joseph Simon virgin Assemani (1687-1768), first identified her with the royal and wealthy lady of Alexandria (Eusebius, Hist.
He was educated at the Maronite college in Rome, and, after taking his doctor's degree in theology and philosophy, returned for a time to his native land.
When very young he was sent to the Maronite college in Rome, and was transferred thence to the Vatican library.
It is worth noting that even as late as the close of the 16th century the Maronite patriarch found it necessary to protest by anathema against imputations of heresy.
The Monothelites refused to submit, and the result was the formation of another schismatic church - the Maronite Church of the Lebanon range.
While retaining many local usages, the Maronite Church does not differ now in anything essential from the Papal, either in dogma or practice.
There is a liturgy which bears his name, and which exists in two forms; the one form was found in a MS. of the 12th century in Calabria, and is, according to Renaudot, the foundation of the three liturgies of St Basil, St Gregory Nazianzen and St Cyril; the other is that which is used by the Maronite and Jacobite Syrians.
The patriarch receives confirmation from Rome, and the political representation of the Maronites at Constantinople is in the hands of the vicar apostolic. Rome has incorporated most of the Maronite saints in her calendar, while refusing (despite their apologists) to canonize either of the reputed eponymous founders of Maronism.
In 1182 it is said that Amaury, patriarch of Antioch, induced some Maronite bishops, who had fallen under crusading influences, to rally to Rome; and a definite acceptance of the Maronite Church into the Roman communion took place at the Council of Florence in 1445.