The ground has to be thoroughly cleared of stones, manured and trenched, and the corms are planted in ridges.
The ground should be kept free of weeds by frequent hoeing and, if not subject to periodical alluvial floods, manured yearly.
River water, especially that which has received town sewage, or the drainage of highly manured land, would naturally be considered most suitable for irrigation, but excellent results are obtained also with waters which are uncontaminated with manurial matters, and which contain but 8 or io grains per gallon of the usual dissolved constituents of spring water.
The land intended for poppy culture is usually selected near villages, in order that it may be more easily manured and irrigated.
A number of experiments in jute cultivation were made during 1906, and the report showed that very encouraging results were obtained from land manured with cow-dung.
In Lombardy a six-year shift is common: either wheat, clover, maize, rice, rice, rice (the last year manured with lupines) or maize, wheat followed by clover, clover, clover ploughed in, and rice, rice and rice manured with lupines.
Maize or Indian corn was cultivated on patches of ground where, as in the Hindu jam, the trees and bushes were burnt and the seed planted in the soil manured by the ashes.
Tulips flourish in any good garden soil that has been deeply dug or trenched and manured the previous season.
The pyrethrum grows best in soil of a loamy texture; this should be well manured and deeply trenched up before planting, and should be mulched in the spring by a surface dressing of half-decayed manure.
Bedding plants thrive best in a light loam, liberally manured with thoroughly rotten dung from an old hotbed or thoroughly decomposed cow droppings and leaf-mould.