The exospore often bears spines or warts, or is variously sculptured, and the character of the markings is often of value for the distinction of genera or higher groups.
Most of the varieties, however, of which no fewer than twenty-seven were recognized by French breeders so early as the beginning of the 18th century, differ merely in the colour and the markings of the plumage.
The variegated plumage of the Snipe is subject to no inconsiderable variation, especially in the extent of dark markings on the belly, flanks, and axillaries, while examples are occasionally seen in which no trace of white, and hardly any of buff or grey, is visible, the place of these tints being taken by several shades of chocolate-brown.
The body is covered by a cuticle which is sculptured and the various markings are of systematic importance: it is secreted by a hypodermis which also includes nerve-cells and some gland-cells.
It is also darker in colour, has less of the frontal crest, shorter legs, a longer tail, and the markings beneath take the form of bars rather than stripes, while the bill, eyes and legs are all black.
The wood is nearly white, or of a yellowish tint, but sometimes exhibits blackish markings due to the mycelium of a fungus.
Bengalensis), in some of which an incipient spiral arrangement of the markings may be noticed on the shoulder.
The rod-like appearance of silk and its absence of markings under the microscope are also easily recognizable features of the fibre.
The colour and markings of a flower often serve to guide the insects to the honey, in the obtaining of which they are compelled either to remove or to deposit pollen.
Referring to the figures (2, 3) for an explanation of terms applicable to the parts of the valve and the markings on its inner surface corresponding to the muscular areas already noted on the surface of the animal's body - we must specially note here the position of that denticulated thickening of the dorsal margin of the valve which is called the hinge (fig.