Of ordinary immorality it took little notice, and the triumph of its cause in the 16th and 17th centuries, while producing such types of ecstatic piety as St Theresa (qv.), the Sor Mariade Jesus (Maria Agreda), (q.v.) and the Venerable Virgin Luisa de Carvajal, was accompanied by an extraordinary development of moral laxity.
His wife, Maria Luisa of Parma, his first cousin, a thoroughly coarse and vicious woman, ruled him completely, though he was capable of obstinacy at times.
Moreover, women took a share in the intellectual movement of the time, and the sisters Luisa and Angela Sigea, Joanna Vaz and Paula Vicente, daughter of Gil Vicente, constituted an informal female academy under the presidency of the Infanta D.
And of his consort Maria Luisa of Spain, was born in Florence in 1783, and from 1818-48 was viceroy of the kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia; his mother was the Princess Elizabeth, sister of Charles Albert, King of Sardinia.