The relations of the Esths and Letts with their landlords are anything but friendly.
The losses of the Letts were due to: (a) the evacuation of the factories by the Russian Government; (b) the partly forced removal of the population of Courland before the German advance; (c) the wars.
The Esths, Ehsts or Esthonians, who call themselves Tallopoeg and Maamees, are known to the Russians as Chukhni or Chukhontsi, to the Letts as Iggauni, and to the Finns as Virolaiset.
Religion.-Seventy-five per cent at least of the Letts are Protestants, but there is a Catholic majority in Latgalia and a number of Greek Orthodox among the Letts.
The percentage of literacy according to nationalities was: Germano-Balts 85, Esthonians 82, Poles 78, Letts 74, Jews 72, unknown 60, Lithuanians 55, Great Russians 36, others 33, White Russians 32.
Ulmanis, with numerous Letts abroad and in Russia.
For early history see Lithuanians And Letts (16.789), also Poland (21.902).